Eastern Bluebird

The Eastern Bluebird holds a special place in the hearts of many. Its striking appearance, soft calls, and willingness to approach humans have made it a beloved favorite among birders and those not interested in the natural world. In this article, I go over the world of the Eastern Bluebird. I explore its features, nesting habits, and ecological importance. From its physical characteristics to its vital role in maintaining ecosystem balance. Most subtopics have links to separate articles that expand on such subtopic. Let’s dive in and see what I have put together.

Common name: Eastern Bluebird
Other names: Azure Bluebird, Blue Robin, Common Bluebird
Scientífic name: Sialia sialis
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Turdidae
Habitat: Open and semi-open habitats
Movements: Sedentary and partially migratory
Conservation Status: Least concern
Population trend: Increasing
Global population: ~ 21,000,000 individuals
Lifespan: At least 25 years and six months

Photo: Male Eastern Bluebird by Rick from Alabama.

Meaning of scientific name

Sialis sialia: Gr. Sialia/sialis. An identified bird mentioned by Athenaeus and Hesychius. The species name sialis derives from the genus name Sialia.

Eastern Bluebird Identification and Appearance

The Eastern Bluebird captivates the attention of even those not very interested in the natural world. Its distinctive plumage and nesting habits, along with its tendency to feed close to people,  catches the eye of many.

Male Eastern Bluebird

The Eastern Bluebird captivates the attention of even those not very interested in the natural world. Its istinctive plumage and nesting habits, along with its tendency to feed close to people,  catches the eye of many.

The male Eastern Bluebird has a deep blue head, back, wings, and tail. The intensity of the color blue in male bluebirds can vary slightly between individuals and is often most vivid during the breeding season.

The vibrant blue contrasts with its reddish-brown chest, which grades to a whitish belly.  

Female Eastern Bluebird

The female Eastern Bluebird is not as brightly colored as the male. Her head, back, and tail have muted grayish-blue hues. Perhaps helping her blend with the surrounding foliage. 

The female’s chest is a soft orange-brown, which distinguishes her from other bird species and adds a touch of warmth to her appearance.

Physical Features

Bluebirds have relatively small and nearly straight black beaks designed for capturing insects with precision. Their eyes, positioned on either side of their head, allow for excellent vision and awareness of their surroundings. 

The bluebird’s body shape is compact and streamlined, enabling agile flight and maneuverability in pursuit of prey.

Size and Measurements

Eastern Bluebirds measure approximately

  • Length: 5.5 to 7 inches (14 to 18 cm)
  • Wingspan: 9 to 12 inches (23 to 30 cm)
  • Weight: 0.95–1.20 oz (27–34 gr.)
  • The males and females are generally similar in size, with slight variations between individuals.

Juvenile Eastern Bluebirds

Juvenile Eastern Bluebirds possess plumage that differs from the adults. Young bluebirds are mostly gray with pale mottles and hints of blue particularly in male nestlings. 

Within a year their feathers gradually transition to a dull version of the adult plumage. Young eastern bluebirds attain the brightly colored plumage of an adult in the second year.   

By familiarizing yourself with the appearance of the male and female Eastern Bluebirds, you can confidently identify these charming birds.

Breeding Biology of the Eastern Bluebird

From their nest site selection to their courtship rituals and parental care, Eastern Bluebirds exhibit interesting breeding behaviors.

Nest Site Selection

Male Eastern Bluebird inspecting a nesting box early in the spring. Photo: Corey Lindner.

Eastern Bluebirds are cavity nesters, which means they rely on pre-existing cavities in trees or other structures for nesting. 

They have a preference for natural tree cavities, but they readily use man-made nest boxes. 

Male bluebirds engage in territorial disputes to secure suitable nesting sites. A suitable nesting territory includes open areas with short grass, plenty of perches, and suitable cavities. 

Courtship Rituals

Early in the breeding season, male Eastern Bluebirds actively engage in courtship displays to attract a mate. The male usually finds a suitable nesting cavity before starting the courtship display.

To attract the attention of the female, the male perches near the nesting cavity or in prominent locations. From here, he flutters his wings, puffs up his plumage, and sings melodious songs. 

If one female approaches the male and shows interest in the nesting cavity, the male may present food to her. 

A sign that the female is interested in the male is that she inspects the nesting cavity. If she enters the cavity and spends time inside is a sure sign that a pair has formed.

Nest Building

Once a pair has formed, the female takes the lead in constructing the nest. The male watches and may help sporadically by bringing some nesting material.

The female gathers nesting materials such as grasses, twigs, and sometimes feathers to create a cozy cup-shaped nest within the chosen cavity or nest box. 


The female Eastern Bluebird typically lays a clutch of 3 to 7 eggs, with each egg being approximately 0.8 inches (2 cm) in size. The eggs are incubated by the female for about 12 to 14 days.

Parental Care

Both male and female Eastern Bluebirds participate in caring for their offspring. 

After the eggs hatch, both parents diligently feed the hungry nestlings a diet primarily consisting of insects. They make frequent trips to forage for insects and deliver the food to the nest. 

As the nestlings grow, the parents gradually introduce berries and fruits into their diet. The parents also remove waste from the nest to maintain it clean.


The nestlings develop rapidly under the care of their parents. They typically fledge or leave the nest after approximately 15 to 20 days. 

The parents continue to provide food and protection to the fledglings for a few weeks until they become independent. 

Nest Success

The success of Eastern Bluebird nests can vary, as they face challenges from predation, extreme weather conditions, and competition for nesting sites.

Providing suitable nest sites can help increase nest success.

Feeding and Other Food Habits of the Eastern Bluebird

The Eastern Bluebird’s diet primarily consists of insects, but they also consume a variety of berries and seeds. 

Insect Diet

Insects form a significant portion of the Eastern Bluebird’s diet, especially during the breeding season. They need to provide a protein-rich diet for their nestlings to promote a rapid growth. 

Bluebirds are skilled insect hunters and prey upon a range of arthropods. They often perch on low branches or fence posts, scanning the ground or air for potential prey. Once a suitable insect is spotted, they swoop down to capture it with precision.

Berry and Fruit Consumption

Male eastern bluebird eating berries at the end of the summer. Photo: Sherwood Lincoln.

Eastern Bluebirds supplement their insect diet with berries and fruits. During the summer and fall months, they consume dogwood, holly, sumac, and elderberry, among the more important ones. 

They may also feed on small fruits such as grapes and cherries. This dietary diversity provides them with essential vitamins, minerals, and energy-rich carbohydrates.

Drinking Behavior

Eastern Bluebirds visit shallow pools of water, bird baths, or other water sources to drink and bathe. Providing a fresh water source in your yard can attract bluebirds and offer them a vital resource for hydration and feather maintenance.

Foraging Techniques

Eastern Bluebirds employ different foraging techniques depending on the availability of prey. 

Sit-and-wait strategy:  Consists of perching on vantage points and scanning their surroundings for insects. Once an insect is detected, they swoop down to catch it and consume it. Most insects are caught on the ground.

Bluebirds also exhibit ground-foraging behavior, hopping along the ground or through grassy areas to flush out insects hiding in the vegetation.

Although less frequently, they engage in aerial hawking, where they fly and catch insects in mid-air. 

Seasonal and Geographic Variation

Eastern bluebirds in different regions may adapt their diet based on the availability of local food sources.

The Eastern Bluebird’s food habits can also vary based on seasonal and geographic factors. For instance, insects and other invertebrates are more abundant during the warmer months, while berries and fruits become more important food sources in the fall and winter. 

By incorporating a variety of insects, berries, and fruits into their diet, Eastern Bluebirds maintain a balanced and nutritionally rich food intake. 

Providing suitable habitats with native plants and minimizing the use of pesticides can help sustain these charming birds and contribute to their overall well-being.

Movements and Migration of the Eastern Bluebird

The Eastern Bluebird show interesting patterns of movements and migration. 

Resident and Migratory Populations

Eastern Bluebirds are known for their diverse populations, which can be categorized into resident and migratory groups. 

Resident populations are found in regions where the climate remains mild year-round, such as parts of Florida, the Gulf Coast, and the southernmost portions of their range. These birds do not undertake long-distance migrations.

Migratory Behavior:

The migratory Eastern Bluebird populations, particularly those in northern regions, embark on seasonal movements. 

As winter approaches, these bluebirds undertake southward migrations to seek more favorable conditions. The exact timing and distances of their migrations can vary depending on factors like weather patterns and food availability.

Wintering Grounds

During the winter months, Eastern Bluebirds from northern regions can be found in the southern parts of their range and may even venture into parts of Mexico and Central America. 

They seek out areas with milder climates and an abundance of food resources, including open woodlands, forest edges, farmlands, and even suburban areas.

Return to Breeding Territory

With the arrival of spring and the onset of the breeding season, migratory Eastern Bluebirds make their way back to their breeding territories. 

They reestablish their presence in preferred habitats, often returning to the same nesting sites they used in previous years if available. 

Their arrival heralds the beginning of courtship rituals and nest-building activities.

What causes Eastern Bluebirds to Migrate

The migration of Eastern Bluebirds is influenced by the availability of food resources. The adults need to ensure an adequate supply of insects and other prey for themselves and their nestlings. 

Additionally, weather conditions and seasonal cues, such as changes in day length, trigger their migratory instincts.

Variation in Migration Distance

The distance and extent of migration can vary among Eastern Bluebirds. Some individuals may undertake shorter migrations within their local regions, while others may travel much greater distances. 

The migration patterns of these birds are subject to ongoing research and are influenced by factors such as individual behavior, genetics, and environmental conditions.

Range and Habitat Preferences of the Eastern Bluebird

The Eastern Bluebird exhibits specific range and habitat preferences. 

Geographic Range

The Eastern Bluebird is primarily found in North America. Its range extends from eastern Canada, including parts of southern Ontario and Quebec, throughout the eastern and central United States, and down to the Gulf Coast.

Its distribution may vary within this range due to factors such as local climate, availability of suitable habitats, and human activities.

Open Habitat Preference

Eastern Bluebirds favor open habitats with short grass and scattered trees or shrubs. 

They thrive in areas that offer a mix of open grasslands, pastures, meadows, farmlands, and woodland edges. Such habitats provide a suitable combination of perching sites for hunting insects and nesting locations in pre-existing cavities or nest boxes.

Nesting habitat

Eastern Bluebirds require suitable nesting sites for breeding. They favor cavities in trees, natural tree hollows, or man-made nest boxes specifically designed for bluebirds. They favor cavities created by woodpeckers.

Open woodlands, edges of forests, and suburban areas with appropriate vegetation structure and nearby foraging areas are ideal for nesting bluebirds.

Suitable Foraging Habitat

Eastern Bluebirds require access to open areas with abundant insect populations. They prefer locations with short grass or bare ground, as it facilitates spotting and capturing insects. 

Open fields, pastures, agricultural lands, and meadows that provide a mix of perches and open spaces are attractive foraging habitats for bluebirds.

Human Interaction

Eastern Bluebirds have adapted well to human-altered landscapes. They utilize suburban areas and parks for nesting and foraging. 

Their presence in residential areas provides opportunities for bird enthusiasts to attract Eastern Bluebirds by installing nest boxes, and offering appropriate food and water sources.

Eastern Bluebird Songs, Calls, and Other Vocalizations

Eastern Bluebirds are known for their melodious songs and calls, which play important roles in communication, territorial defense, courtship, and maintaining social bonds. 

Familiarizing yourself with their vocal repertoire enhances the joy of observing and identifying them.

Song of the Male

The male Eastern Bluebird is the primary singer, and its song is a delightful and distinctive feature. Male bluebirds give a series of rich, musical notes that vary in length and pitch. 

The song is often described as a soft warbling or melodious gurgling sound. It serves multiple purposes, including attracting a mate, establishing and defending territory boundaries, and signaling its presence to other bluebirds.

Calls of the Eastern Bluebird

In addition to their songs, Eastern Bluebirds produce various calls that communicate different messages. These calls include:

  • Flight Call: When in flight, Eastern Bluebirds emit a soft, high-pitched “tu-a-wee” or “tu-ee” call, which helps them maintain contact with other members of their group during movement.
  • Alarm Call: When perceiving potential threats or predators, Eastern Bluebirds emit sharp, repeated “chur” or “chink” calls. These calls serve as warning signals to alert nearby bluebirds and other birds in the area.
  • Contact Call: Eastern Bluebirds use soft and gentle “mew” or “pew” calls to communicate with their mate or other bluebirds in their vicinity. These calls help maintain contact and reinforce social bonds.

Duetting Behavior

During the breeding season, Eastern Bluebird pairs engage in duetting behavior. This involves coordinated vocalizations between the male and female, creating a harmonious combination of sounds. 

The duets serve as a bonding ritual between mates and help establish and reinforce their pair bond.

Vocal Repertoire Development

The songs and calls of Eastern Bluebirds are not innate but are learned through a process known as vocal repertoire development. 

Young bluebirds acquire their vocalizations by listening to and imitating the songs and calls of adults, particularly their parents. Through this learning process, they gradually develop and refine their vocal skills over time.

Variations in Songs

Eastern Bluebird songs can exhibit regional and individual variations. Certain geographic populations may have distinct variations in their song patterns, melodies, or tempo. 

Additionally, individual bluebirds can incorporate their unique nuances or variations into their songs, adding an element of individuality to their vocal performances.

Interesting Facts about the Eastern Bluebird

The Eastern Bluebird is a bird with several unique characteristics and intriguing behaviors. Exploring these interesting facts sheds light on their biology, behavior, and ecological significance:

Meaning of the Species Name

Delicate, vibrant, and steeped in symbolic significance, the Eastern Bluebird is a frequent feature on postcards.

The scientific name of the Eastern Bluebird is Sialia sialis. The genus name, Sialia, is derived from the Latin word for “blue” and refers to the striking blue plumage of the males.

State Bird: The Eastern Bluebird is the official state bird of the States of New York and Missouri. 

Color Dimorphism: Eastern Bluebirds exhibit sexual dimorphism in their plumage.

Males feature vibrant blue feathers on their upperparts, while females have a more subdued blue-gray coloration with hints of reddish-brown. 

Nest Box Usage: Eastern Bluebirds readily accept man-made nest boxes, making them a popular species for nest box programs. These programs help offset the decline of natural cavities lost to starlings.

Monogamous Breeding: Eastern Bluebirds are monogamous and typically form lifelong pair bonds. Mated pairs work together to construct nests, incubate eggs, and raise their young. 

Insect Control: Eastern Bluebirds are beneficial for insect control in their habitats. They consume a wide range of insects, including agricultural pests, helping to naturally regulate insect populations and reduce the need for chemical pesticides.

Multiple Broods: Eastern bluebirds raise 2 broods per year, sometimes. The number of broods a bluebird pair can have per breeding season can range from one to four, but most pairs raise one or two broods.

Winter Flocking: During winter, Eastern Bluebirds often form small flocks with other bird species, including American Robins and Cedar Waxwings. These mixed-species flocks offer increased foraging efficiency and provide additional protection against predators.

Conservation Success: Eastern Bluebird populations have experienced fluctuations over the years, with declines attributed to habitat loss and competition for nesting sites.


The Eastern Bluebird is a cherished bird of eastern North America. By learning about its identification, breeding biology, feeding habits, migration patterns, range, and fascinating vocalizations, we gain a deeper appreciation for this remarkable species. The more we understand the Eastern Bluebird, the better equipped we are to ensure its protection and presence in the eastern half of North America.

4 thoughts on “Eastern Bluebird”

    1. Hello Martin,

      Yes it is recommended to remove the old nest and clean up the house after the chicks leave the nest. This helps to keep ectoparasites at bay.

      Good luck,

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