Florida Backyard Feeder birds: The Definitive Guide

Here is my guide to backyard feeder birds of the State of Florida. With this guide, you will be able to identify the birds most frequently reported at bird feeders in Florida. You will learn about the type of food and feeder that attract each species, as well as information about their natural history. If you already feed birds or are starting a new bird feeder, this guide is for you. Let’s dive in!

Click open the table of content and jump to a species account, or scroll down and navigate this guide.

The guide to the Florida backyard feeder birds is a reference tool for backyard bird watchers and feeder owners. The list includes thirty of the most frequently reported bird species by participants in the Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology’s Feederwatch Program (link below).

What types of birds visit backyard feeders in Florida?

Florida feeder birds are primarily seed and grain-eaters followed by diet generalists. Birds that feed primarily on insects and other invertebrates are represented in smaller numbers.

Strictly seed and grain feeders such as doves (13.4%) and sparrows, finches,  and their allies (23%) make up 36% of the birds that visit bird feeders in Florida.

Doves are entirely vegan birds, while finches and sparrows eat primarily seeds and grains but include insects, particularly during the breeding season.

Blackbirds, crows, and jays are diet generalists and make a combined 20.1% of Florida backyard birds. They take just about any type of food and often visit bird feeders in large numbers. 

Mockingbirds, thrashers, bluebirds, robins, titmice, chickadees, warblers, wrens, and hummingbirds have more specialized diets. They take certain types of bird seeds but typically feed on insects. 

The reason for their small numbers at feeders is partly because fewer feeders offer the type of food these birds favor.

Identification pictures of birds that come to backyard bird feeders in Florida

Indigo bunting (male). Photo: Carlos Sanchez.

Identifying backyard birds gives many hours of enjoyment to thousands of people in Florida. This guide will help you recognize male, female, and juvenile plumages of not only the colorful birds but also the little brown ones. The illustrations emphasize birds’ markings and field marks to pay attention to.

Each species account includes aspects of the bird’s natural history, which enhance the bird feeding and bird watching experiences.

Recognizing the species of birds in your backyard is not only rewarding but can also help them. Backyard birders can contribute to these birds’ study and conservation by submitting their sightings to databases for scientific research.

Also, knowing the types of birds that visit your Florida backyard can help you cater to them by using the type of birdseed and feeders they prefer. Cardinals like hulled sunflower seeds while American goldfinches prefer nyjer or thistle seed.

List of birds that visit backyard feeders in Florida

Birds visit backyard feeders at different rates. The following list includes 30 of the birds that more often visit bird feeders in Florida ranked by frequency. The list and percentages are based on observations reported by people that feed backyard birds. The more frequently observed birds are on top of the list.

This list also gives an idea about what birds one can expect to visit a backyard feeder in Florida. The top 10 birds are perhaps those that almost certainly will visit your backyard if you offer food to our feathered friends. 

Bird NamePercentage of Florida
backyard feeders visited
1Northern Cardinal92
2Mourning Dove86
3Red-bellied Woodpecker81
4Blue Jay81
5Northern Mockingbird67
6Tufted Titmouse65
7Carolina Wren61
8American Goldfinch57
9Yellow-rumped Warbler56
10Downy Woodpecker52
11Carolina Chickadee49
12Gray Catbird46
13House Finch43
14American Crow41
15Pine Warbler41
16Common Grackle40
17Chipping Sparrow39
18Ruby-throated Hummingbird37
19Brown Thrasher37
20American Robin33
21Painted Bunting33
22Common Ground-Dove33
23Brown-headed Cowbird33
24House Sparrow27
25Red-winged Blackbird6
26Eastern Bluebird6
27White-winged Dove6
28Baltimore Oriole6
29Eurasian Collared Dove6
30Indigo Bunting6

What kind of bird feeder should I get in Florida?

I simply analyzed the type of feeders most used by backyard feeder birds in Florida. The recommended type of feeder is a platform feeder, particularly if one is starting to feed backyard birds. 

According to the data analyzed, most (92.5%) birds use platform feeders, followed by large hopper feeders (64.8%). Many birds (32%) are comfortable feeding on the ground.

The analysis consisted of tallying bird species by bird feeder type used. The use of feeder types by birds comes from reports from folks that feed backyard birds in Florida reported to the FeederWatch Project of the Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology. 

The table below shows the bird feeder types most frequently used by backyard birds in Florida.

Feeder TypeNumber of Species that use itPercentage
Platform5092.5
Large Hopper3564.8
Ground3259.2
Large Tube2037.0
Suet Cage2037.0
Small Tube1527.7
Small Hopper916.6

How do I attract birds to my bird feeder in Florida? 

Attracting birds to your bird feeders is as simple as putting up a feeder with food or spraying birdseed on the ground. Once one or two birds find a food source, others become curious about these birds coming and going from your yard, investigating and finding your feeder.

It is very important to be consistent. Once you put birdseed out for the birds, they will make visiting your backyard a part of their daily routine. If food is no longer available for several days, they will drop your backyard as a reliable source of food and visit it only sporadically.

The time it takes for the birds to discover your feeders depends on the vegetation in your yard and around it. Bushes and trees attract birds, and more birds around are more likely to notice your feeders.

The bird feeder should be located in a place visible to the birds. In the past, I have recommended starting spraying food on the ground or putting food on a platform feeder, or simply a piece of plywood to start attracting birds. 

Once you have a few birds visiting your yard, you can implement a hopper or tube feeder. You can gradually move the bird feeder to a location in your yard where you can enjoy them from your home, for instance, outside the kitchen window.

What type of food do I need to attract birds in Florida

My preferred type of food for beginners is seed mixes available in grocery stores. Bird seed mixes include several types of birdseed and grains that appeal to a wider variety of birds. Once you get birds coming to your feeders, you can begin to offer the type of food that is more likely to attract the birds you want to visit your feeders.

Key to Species Information

A fair amount of the information in this guide is obtained from observations made by individuals in the community. The Federwatch Program and eBird collect citizen reports while making the data openly available to the public.

  • Voice: The voice for each species account includes the vocalizations more frequently given by the bird.
    Preferred food and feeder type: Food and feeder type preferences were obtained from monitoring reports by FeederWatch Program participants in the State of Florida. 
  • Bird visitation frequency to Florida backyard feeders by species: Florida residents participating in the FeederWatch Program observe and report each species at their feeders. A species visitation history provides insight into the frequency that such species is expected to visit a backyard bird feeder in Florida.
  • Monthly frequency/abundance at feeders: The monthly frequency or abundance bar is based on the number of times the species is reported on checklists submitted to eBird. More individuals present in a given month are more likely to visit more backyard bird feeders. 
gray-catbird-presence
In months with a thick blue bar, the species was frequently reported on lists submitted to eBird. Blue bars with thin sections indicate that the species is scarce during those months.
  • Group or flock Size at feeders
    Florida residents participating in the FeederWatch Program observe and report each species’ approximate flock or group size at their feeders. Past observations provide insight into the flock size a species is expected to visit a backyard bird feeder in Florida.

Birds that visit backyard bird feeders in the State of Florida

SPARROWS, FINCHES, & ALLIES

In Florida, sparrows, finches, and their allies constitute the largest group of backyard feeder birds. Most are ground-feeder birds that feed on platform, hopper, and tube feeders.

Birds in this group have heavy, conical, seed-crushing bills. Backyard feeders generally offer seeds and grain that sparrows, finches, cardinals, and buntings like. Some birds in this group take more insects and other invertebrates during the breeding season and switch to a largely vegetarian diet during the rest of the year. 


Northern Cardinal

Length 9″, Weight 1.6 oz

Identification: The male northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) is all red with a conspicuous crest and long tail. The female is warm-brown with red on the wings and tail. Juveniles resemble a female.
Food: Attract cardinals with black oil sunflower seeds, hulled sunflower seeds, safflower, cracked corn, peanut hearts, millet, and milo.
Feeder: It favors large tube, large hopper, and platform feeders. It also feeds on the ground.
Frequency: Northern cardinals visit 91.64% of backyard bird feeders in the State of Florida in groups of 2.3 individuals. 
Behavior: Northern cardinals can be aggressive to smaller birds but are displaced by blue jays, woodpeckers, grackles, and larger birds.
Backyard: Favors dense cover and tall shrubs and trees, but will visit just about any type of yard with enough vegetation cover in or near it.

mourning-dove-status
The Northern cardinal is the most popular and common bird feeder visitor in the State of Florida. They do not turn dull in the winter and maintain their plumage year-round.

Nest: Northern cardinals build a cup-shaped nest in a fork of small branches, shrubs, or vine tangle, 1-15 feet above the ground.
Breeding season: The northern cardinal breeds in March through mid-September.
Breeding Period: Northern cardinals lay 2-5 grayish to buffy white eggs speckled with light brown. It takes approximately 22 days from egg-laying (incubation period 12 days, nestling period 10 days) until fledging.
Lifespan: Northern cardinals live at least 15 years and nine months.


House Finch

house-finch-
Length 6″, Weight 0.7 oz

Identification: The male house finch (Haemorhous mexicanus) has red on the head and breast, which contrasts with the gray-brown of the rest of the body. A few males have yellow instead of red. Females are gray-brown streaked with black on the back, breast, and belly.
Food: Attract house finches with black oil sunflower seed, hulled sunflower seeds, safflower, and nyjer.
Feeder: It favors large and small tube, large and small hopper, and platform feeders.
Frequency: The house finch visits 43% of backyard bird feeders in the State of Florida in groups of 2.5 individuals. Sometimes much larger flocks.
Behavior: House finches are surprisingly submissive to even smaller birds. They generally interact well with other birds at feeders.
Backyard: Favors human-created habitats and are common in suburban settings.

northern-cardinal-presence
The house finch is now a year-round resident bird in most of the State of Florida. It has been expanding its geographic range in the last decades.

Nest: House finches build an open cup surrounded by many twigs in trees, cactus, and rock ledges. It also nests in light fixtures, house decorations, hanging planters, and building ledges.
Breeding season: The house finch breeds in late March through early August.
Breeding Period: The house finch lays 2-6 bluish-white eggs dotted with brown. It takes about 29 days from egg-laying (incubation period 13 days, nestling period 16 days) until fledging.
Lifespan: House finches live at least 11 years and 7 months.


Chipping Sparrow

Length 5.5″, Weight 0.4 oz

Identification: The chipping sparrow (Spizella passerina) in breeding plumage is grayish below with a rusty cap and black eyeline. Birds in non-breeding plumage have a dusky-brown cap and darker brown plumage. Juveniles are gray-brown with black streaks below.
Food: Attract chipping sparrows with hulled sunflower seeds, nyjer, cracked corn, millet, and milo.
Feeder: They favor large and small hopper, and platform feeders. They are also ground feeders eating spilled seeds below elevated feeders.
Frequency: The chipping sparrow visits 38.8% of backyard bird feeders in the State of Florida in groups of 6.3 individuals.
Behavior: Chipping sparrows are submissive to most other birds at feeders, even to birds smaller in size.
Backyard: It favors semi-open habitats often in suburban areas. Shrubs and small trees a the edges of your yard are used by chipping sparrows for hiding.

chipping-sparrow-presence
The chipping sparrow is a non-breeding winter visitor in the Fall and Winter months. It breeds in the panhandle area but is likely to be observed in non-breeding plumage in most of the State.

Nest: It builds a cup-shaped nest in dense foliage or the tip of a branch, usually within 15 feet above the ground, but sometimes higher.
Breeding season: Chipping sparrows breed in late March through late August.
Breeding Period: Chipping sparrows lay 2-7 bluish eggs lightly streaked and spotted with dark gray. It takes about 24 days from egg-laying (incubation period 13 d, nestling period 11 d) until fledging.
Lifespan: Chipping sparrows live at least 10 years and 11 months.


American Goldfinch

Length 5″, Weight 0.5 oz

Identification: In Florida, the American goldfinch (Spinus tristis) is in its winter plumage consisting of an unmarked brown with blackish wings and two broad pale wing bars. Breeding males replace the brown with bright yellow and a black cap.
Food: Attract American goldfinches to your yards with hulled sunflower and nyjer seeds.
Feeder: It favors large and small tube, large hopper, and platform feeders. It also feeds on the ground.
Frequency: The American goldfinch visits 56.7% of backyard bird feeders in the State of Florida in groups of 3.6 individuals.
Behavior: Non-aggressive and easy-going at feeders. Submissive to most other feeder birds. Often clings to feeders horizontally.
Backyard: Shrubs, tall weeds, and in general seed-producing weeds attract American goldfinches.

The American goldfinch visits Florida during the winter months when adult males are expected in their non-breeding plumage. It does not breed in the State of Florida.

Nest: American goldfinches build a neat cup-shaped nest on twigs, dense shrubs, and dense foliage in overhanging branches of trees 4 to 15 feet above the ground. 
Breeding season: Goldfinches breed in early June through late September.
Breeding Period: The American goldfinch lays 2-7 pale bluish-white eggs with brownish dots on the wide side of the egg. It takes about 27 days from egg-laying (incubation period 13 d, nestling period 14 d) until fledging.
Lifespan: American goldfinches live at least 7 years.


Painted Bunting

Length 5.5″, Weight 0.5 oz

Identification: The colorful male painted bunting (Passerina ciris) has a bright blue head, bright red underparts, and lime green back. Females and immature males are plain green above and yellowish and unstreaked below.
Food: Attract painted buntings with hulled sunflower seed, millet, nyjer.
Feeder: It favors large and small tube, large hopper, and platform feeders.
Frequency: The painted bunting visits 34% of backyard bird feeders in the State of Florida in groups of 2.9 individuals.
Behavior: They are shy and non-aggressive, submissive to other, even smaller birds.
Backyard: Favors backyards with dense vegetation around the feeders that they use to approach the feeder and return to cover.

The painted bunting is a Fall and Winter visitor to South Florida. During migration, it occurs temporarily in most of the state. It breeds in coastal North Florida.

Nest: It builds a well-shaped open cup in dense foliage 3 to 6 feet above the ground.
Breeding season: Painted buntings breed in late April through mid-August.
Breeding Period: Painted buntings lay 3-4 pale bluish eggs speckled with brown. It takes about 19 days from egg-laying (incubation period 12 days, nestling period 14 days) until fledging.
Lifespan: Painted buntings live at least 11 years.


Indigo Bunting

Length 5.5″, Weight 0.5 oz

Identification: The male indigo bunting (Passerina cyanea) in breeding plumage is entirely blue. Females are brown with faint dark streaks on the breast and belly.
Food: Attract indigo buntings with hulled sunflower seed, millet, and nyjer.
Feeder: It favors large and small tube, large hopper, and platform feeders.
Frequency: The indigo bunting visits 6% of backyard bird feeders in the State of Florida. Some feeders are visited in large numbers.
Behavior: Nonaggressive and easy-going at feeders. Submissive to other even smaller birds.
Backyard: Favors backyards with dense vegetation around the feeders that they use to approach the feeder and return to cover.

The Indigo bunting breeds in Florida in the Spring and Summer months. It migrates to Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean during the Fall and Winter months.

Nest: Indigo buntings build a cup-shaped nest in thick vegetation, usually 3 to 5 feet above the ground.
Breeding season: The indigo bunting breeds in late May through late September.
Breeding Period: Indigo buntings lay 3-4 white unmarked eggs with some or no brownish spots. It takes about 24 days from egg-laying (incubation period 13 days, nestling period 14 days) until fledging.
Lifespan: Indigo buntings live at least 13 years and 3 months.


House Sparrow

Length 6.3″, Weight 0.98 oz

Identification: Males house sparrow (Passer domesticus) have rich-brown and patterned back, chestnut nape, and a black bib that varies with age. The forehead and underparts are gray. Females are brown with a patterned back. Immatures look like females. 
Food: House sparrows like black oil sunflower seed, hulled sunflower seed, cracked corn, peanut hearts, millet, and milo.
Feeder: They favor large tube, large hopper, and platform feeders. They also feed on the ground.
Frequency: The house sparrow visits 27.2% of backyard bird feeders in Florida in groups of 3.9 individuals.
Behavior: It can be aggressive to other birds at feeders. Dominant over same-sized and smaller birds.
Backyard: Favors open habitats, farmland, and urban areas. Visits all types of backyards. 

house-sparrow-presence
The house sparrow is a year-round resident in Florida

Nest: House sparrows build large, bulky, and messy-looking nests with a side entrance. Uses cavities, light fixtures, tangled vines, and just about any structure to place a nest.
Breeding season: House sparrows breed in early March through late September.
Breeding Period: House sparrows lay 1-8 variable whitish, bluish, or greenish eggs spotted with gray. It takes about 26 days from egg-laying (incubation period 13 days, nestling period 13 days) until fledging.
Lifespan: House sparrows live at least 15 years and nine months.


DOVES AND PIGEONS

In Florida, doves and pigeons constitute the second largest group of backyard feeder birds. Doves and pigeons are entirely vegetarian at all times of the year. They have a weak straight bill adapted to pick seeds and grains and swallow them whole. They are unable to crush seeds as finches and sparrows do. Some may take small berries. 


Mourning Dove

Length 12″, Weight 4.2 oz

Identification: The mourning dove (Zenaida macroura) is all brown with dark spots on the wing. Juveniles have pale edging on feathers. 
Food: Attract mourning doves with hulled sunflower seeds, safflower, cracked corn, peanut hearts, millet, oats, and milo.
Feeder: It feeds mostly on the ground, below elevated feeders. The mourning dove also uses platform and large hopper feeders.
Frequency: Mourning doves visit 85.9% of bird feeders in the State of Florida in groups of 3.2 individuals.
Behavior: The mourning dove is non-aggressive at feeders but stands its ground against other birds. Submissive to blue jays, blackbirds, and crows.
Backyard: It favors relatively open yards where it usually feeds on spilled seeds on the ground below hanging feeders.

mourning-dove-presence
The Mourning dove is a fairly common year-round resident in Florida.

Nest: Mourning doves build a precarious platform of twigs placed in a fork, branch, or dense foliage usually 10 to 15 feet above the ground.
Breeding season: Mourning doves breed in mid-February through early October.
Breeding Period: The female lays 2 white eggs. It takes about 27 days from egg-laying (incubation period 14 days, nestling period: 14 days) until fledging.
Lifespan: Mourning doves live at least 30 years and four months.


Common Ground-Dove

Length 6.5″, Weight 1.1oz

Identification: The male common ground-dove (Columbina passerina) is mostly buffy-brown with an orange bill tipped with black. The female is a dull version of the male. Both sexes have a scaly pattern on the neck and breast and black spots on the wings.
Food: Attract common ground-doves with hulled sunflower seeds, cracked corn, millet, oats, and milo.
Feeder: Common ground doves feed mostly on the ground but can use hopper and platform feeders.
Frequency: Common ground-doves visit 33.1% of backyard bird feeders in the State of Florida in groups of 2.1 individuals.
Behavior: Rather shy dove that feeds mostly on the ground on seed spilled from hanging feeders. It is submissive to other, even smaller birds.
Backyard: Favors open and semi-open habitats. Visit yards with ample space often in suburban areas.

The common ground-dove is a year-round resident in the State of Florida.

Nest: It builds a flimsy platform of accumulated twigs on a fork, crosses of branches, or palmetto fronts 3 to 12 feet above the ground. 
Breeding season: The common ground-dove breeds most of the year, from early February through mid-December.
Breeding Period: Common ground-doves lay 1-3 pure white eggs. It takes about 26 days from egg-laying (incubation period 14 days, nestling period 14 days) until fledging.
Lifespan: Common ground-doves live at least 7 years and 2 months.


White-winged Dove

Length 11.5″, Weight 5 oz

Identification: The white-winged dove (Zenaida asiatica) is uniform gray-brown with white bars along the edges of the folded wing. Note the blue bare skin around the eye and light gray terminal band in the tail.
Food: Attract white-winged doves with hulled sunflower seeds, safflower, cracked corn, millet, oats, and milo.
Feeder: It feeds mostly on the ground but can use platform feeders.
Frequency: The white-winged dove visits 5.7% of backyard bird feeders in the State of Florida in groups of 4.6 individuals.
Behavior: Non-aggressive but stands its ground against smaller non-aggressive birds. Submissive to blue jays, blackbirds, and crows.
Backyard: Favors backyard with plenty of perches. It mostly takes the seeds spilled on the ground from hanging feeders.

The white-winged dove is common on the west coast of Florida and uncommon on the eastern half of the State.

Nest: It builds a precarious platform of twigs placed in a fork or dense foliage 4-30 feet above the ground.
Breeding season: White-winged doves breed in late March through mid-September.
Breeding Period: White-winged doves lay 2 white eggs. It takes about 35 days from egg-laying (incubation period 18 days, nestling period 17 days) until fledging.
Lifespan: White-winged doves live at least 21 years and nine months.


Eurasian Collared-Dove

Length 13″, Weight 7 oz

Identification: The Eurasian collared-dove (Streptopelia decaocto) is buffy-brown with a black incomplete collar on the neck. It has a relatively long tail with a pale terminal band. Both sexes look alike.
Food: Attract Eurasian collared-doves with hulled sunflower seeds, cracked corn, peanut hearts, millet, oats, and milo.
Feeder: It usually feeds on the ground but can use large hopper and platform feeders.
Frequency: The Eurasian collared-dove visits less than 5.7% of backyard bird feeders in the State of Florida, usually in pairs or singles.
Behavior: This dove is not aggressive to other birds at feeders. It may be submissive to other, even smaller birds.
Backyard: Favors semi-open woodlands, farmland, and urban areas. Visits open yards, usually in pairs feeding on spilled seeds on the ground, below hanging feeders.

The Eurasian collared-dove is a recently established exotic species in Florida, where it is present year-round.

Nest: The Eurasian collared-dove builds a simple platform of twigs, usually at about 10 feet above the ground.
Breeding season: They breed in late March through mid-September.
Breeding Period: The Eurasian collared-dove lays 1-2 white unmarked eggs. It takes about 30 days from egg-laying (incubation period 16 days, nestling period 14 days) until fledging.
Lifespan: Eurasian collared doves live at least 13 years and 8 months.


BLACKBIRDS & THEIR ALLIES

Blackbirds are diet generalists that eat seeds, grains, nectar, fruit, insects, and small invertebrates (including nestlings of other birds). Any type of food offered in Florida backyard feeders will attract blackbirds.


Brown-headed Cowbird

Length 7.5″, Weight 1.5 oz

Identification: Males brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) are glossy black with chestnut-brown heads. Females are gray-brown overall, with faint dark streaks on the breast and belly.
Food: Attract brown-headed cowbirds with black oil sunflower seeds, hulled sunflower seeds, cracked corn, millet, oats, and milo.
Feeder: Brown-headed cowbirds favor large hopper, platform feeders, and the ground.
Frequency: The brown-headed cowbird visits 34.8% of backyard bird feeders in the State of Florida in groups of 7.6 individuals.
Behavior: Aggressive to other birds, dominant over smaller birds. Attends feeders usually in flocks.
Backyard: Favors backyards that are open and near open woods and farmlands.

The brown-headed cowbird is present year-round during the Fall and Winter months. During the Spring and Summer is present as a breeder only in the northern half of Florida.

Nest: Brown-headed cowbirds do not build nests but lay their eggs (parasitize) in the nest of other birds.
Breeding season: Brown-headed cowbirds breed in early April through the end of August.
Breeding Period: A female cowbird lays 1-7 grayish eggs with brown spots. Birds that take over the parental duties for the cowbirds take about 23 days from egg-laying  (incubation period 11 days, nestling period 12 days) until fledging.
Lifespan: Brown-headed cowbirds live at least nine years.


Red-winged Blackbird

Length 8.7″, Weight 1.8 oz

Identification: Adult breeding males red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) are black with bright red shoulder patches. Non-breeding males have rusty or whitish feather edges in the winter. Females and juveniles are brown with black streaks.
Food: Attract red-winged blackbird with black oil sunflower seeds, hulled sunflower seeds, cracked corn, peanuts hearts, millet, oats, and milo.
Feeder: It favors platform, tube, and large hopper feeders. It also feeds on the ground.
Frequency: The red-winged blackbird visits 5.7% of backyard bird feeders in the State of Florida in groups of 4.6 individuals.
Behavior: It is aggressive to other birds taking over the feeders when present in large numbers. Submissive to blue jays, starlings, and red-bellied woodpeckers.
Backyard: Favors backyards near lakes, marshes, and farmland. It is a frequent visitor to feeders in semi-urban areas.

Red-winged blackbirds are year-round residents in Florida. They are more likely to visit bird feeders during the non-breeding months of Fall and Winter.

Nest: It builds a cup-shaped nest in vertical shoots of marshes often mixed with saplings, generally 3 to 6 feet from the water.
Breeding season: The red-winged blackbird breeds in early April through early August.
Breeding Period: Red-winged blackbirds lay 2-4 bluish-green eggs with dark markings. It takes about 25 days from egg-laying (incubation period 12 days, nestling period 13 days) until fledging.
Lifespan: Red-winged blackbirds live at least 15 years and nine months.


Baltimore Oriole

Length 8.7″, Weight 1.2 oz

Identification: Males Baltimore oriole (Icterus galbula) have a black head and back with a bold white wing bar. The breast and belly are bright orange. Females have a variable plumage going from yellowish to orange below, often with blotchy-black marks on the head and back. Juveniles are similar to females.
Food: Attract Baltimore orioles with fruit, jelly, suet, and nectar.
Feeder: Baltimore orioles favor platform and nectar feeders.
Frequency: The Baltimore oriole visits 6% or less of backyard bird feeders in the State of Florida in groups of 1.2 individuals.
Behavior: Non-aggressive at feeders. Submissive to other even smaller birds.
Backyard: Favors backyards in deciduous and open woodlands. Visit feeders alone or in small flocks.

The Baltimore oriole is a Fall and Winter visitor in most of the State of Florida.

Nest: It builds a hanging bag-like nest attached to thin branches 20 to 30 above the ground.
Breeding season: The Baltimore oriole breeds in early May through mid-July.
Breeding Period: The Baltimore oriole lays 3-7 pale bluish eggs blotched with dark brown. It takes about 27 days from egg-laying (incubation period 13 days, nestling period 14 days) until fledging.
Lifespan: Baltimore orioles live at least 12 years.


Common Grackle

Length 12.5″, Weight 4 oz

Identification: Common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula) look black from a distance. They has a shiny greenish head with shades of purple on the rest of the body. Its plumage is variable. Note the pale eye in adults.
Food: Attract common grackles with black oil sunflower seeds, hulled sunflower seeds, safflower, suet, cracked corn, peanuts, peanut hearts, fruit, millet, oats, and milo.
Feeder: It favors large hopper and platform feeders and feeds on the ground.
Frequency: Common grackles visit 40.3% of backyard bird feeders in the State of Florida in groups of 4 or more individuals.
Behavior: One of the most aggressive and dominant birds at bird feeders in Florida. Takes over feeders when present.
Backyard: Favors open and semi-open habitats. Visit all types of yards often in flocks.  

The common grackle is a year-round resident in Florida.

Nest: Common grackles build a bulky nest with an open cup in trees and shrubs, usually 20 feet or less above the ground. It can also nest in barns, rock crevices, and even stored farm equipment. 
Breeding season: Common grackles breed in early March through early July.
Breeding Period: Common grackles lay 1-7 brownish to pale bluish-gray eggs spotted with brown. It takes about 28 days from egg-laying (incubation period 13 days, nestling period 15 days) until fledging.
Lifespan: Common grackles live at least 23 years and 1 month.


MOCKINGBIRDS, THRASHERS, & CATBIRDS

Mockingbirds, thrashers, and catbirds belong to the family Mimidae (Mimids). These birds not only delight Florida backyard bird feeding enthusiasts with their presence but also with their songs. All are great songsters, and some are great vocal mimics that incorporate parts of other local birds’ songs into their repertoire.

Mimids feed on insects and other arthropods, small vertebrates, and fruit. They use their bill to toss leaves and sticks or rake through leaf litter in search of food. They come to feeders offering fruit but also taking certain seeds and grains.


Northern Mockingbird

Length 10″, Weight 1.7 oz

Identification: The northern mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos) is gray above and whitish gray below. In flight, it flashes white patches on the wings and white streaks on the long tail. Note its pale eyes.
Food: Attract northern mockingbirds with hulled sunflower seeds, suet, peanut hearts, fruit, and mealworms.
Feeder: It favors platform feeders and the ground.
Frequency: The northern mockingbird visits 67.2% of backyard bird feeders in the State of Florida in groups of 1.2 individuals.
Behavior: Non-aggressive at feeders and submissive to most other birds.
Backyard: Northern mockingbirds do well in all vegetation types, including yards in urban areas with little vegetation.

mourning-dove-status
The northern mockingbird is a year-round resident in Florida.

Nest: The northern mockingbird builds an open cup-shaped nest in dense shrubs, usually 2-10 feet above the ground.
Breeding season: Northern mockingbirds breed in late February through mid-September.
Breeding Period: Northern mockingbirds lay 2-6 bluish or greenish eggs blotched with brown. It takes about 25 days from egg-laying (incubation period 13 days, nestling period: 12 days) until fledging.
Lifespan: The northern mockingbird lives at least 11 years and 7 months.


Gray Catbird

Length 8.5″, Weight 1.3 oz

Identification: The gray catbird (Dumetella carolinensis) is uniformly gray with a black cap. Note the chestnut undertail coverts.
Food: Attract gray catbirds with suet, peanut hearts, fruit, and mealworms.
Feeder: It favors platform feeders and also feeds on the ground.
Frequency: The gray catbird visits 46.4% of backyard bird feeders in the State of Florida in groups of 1.3 individuals.
Behavior: Rather shy and non-aggressive. Avoid any confrontation, and it is submissive to other birds.
Backyard: Favors dense thickets and fruit-bearing shrubs.

The gray catbird is a Fall and winter visitor in the State of Florida.

Nest: It builds an open cup nest on horizontal branches hidden in thick foliage around 4 feet above the ground. 
Breeding season: Gray catbirds breed in mid-March through late June.
Breeding Period: The gray catbird lays 1-6 blue-green eggs. It takes about 24 days from egg-laying (incubation period 14 days and nestling period 11 days) until fledging.
Lifespan: Gray catbirds live at least 17 years and 11 months.


Brown Thrasher

Length 11.5″, Weight 2.4 oz

Identification: The brown thrasher (Toxostoma rufum) has a long tail, reddish-brown back, and pale wing bars. The underparts are heavily streaked with black. The eyes are pale yellow. 
Food: Attract brown thrashers with hulled sunflower seeds, suet cage, cracked corn, and peanut hearts.
Feeder: It favors platform feeders and also feeds on the ground.
Frequency: The brown thrasher visits 37.3% of backyard bird feeders in the State of Florida in groups of 1.1 individuals.
Behavior: Rather shy and non-aggressive at feeders. Submissive to most other birds.
Feeder: Favors dense vegetation and thickets it uses to approach feeders and hide.

The brown thrasher is a year-round resident in Florida.

Nest: It builds a relatively large cup-shaped nest in dense vegetation 2-7 feet above the ground.
Breeding season: Brown thrashers breed in mid-April through late August.
Breeding Period: Brown thrashers lay 2-6 pale bluish or greenish eggs with reddish-brown speckles. It takes about 25 days from egg-laying (incubation period 13 days, nestling period 14 days) until fledging.
Lifespan: Brown thrashers live at least 10 years and 11 months.


JAYS & CROWS

Jays and crows of the avian family Corvidae (Corvids) are among the most familiar birds. Blue jays and American crows are common visitors to bird feeders in Florida.

Corvids are diet generalists, including just about anything edible in their diets. They can eat seeds, fruits, insects, and small mammals. They are notorious bird nest rovers, and some feed on carrion. Corvids are opportunistic and visit all types of Florida backyard feeders that offer any type of food. 


Blue Jay

Length 11″, Weight 3 oz

Identification: The blue jay (Cyanocitta cristata) is blue and black above with white markings. Below can be whitish to pale gray. It has a conspicuous crest and black necklace.
Food: Attract blue jays with black oil sunflower seeds, hulled sunflower seeds, safflower, suet, cracked corn, suet, peanuts, peanut hearts, fruit, millet, milo, and mealworms.
Feeder: Blue jays favor large tube feeders, suet cage, large hopper feeders, platform feeders, and the ground.
Frequency: Blue jays visit 85.6% of backyard bird feeders in the State of Florida in groups of 1.8 individuals.
Behavior: Aggressive and dominant at feeders. Submissive only to starlings, common grackles, red-bellied woodpecker, and crows.
Backyard: Favors all types of yard conditions, including urban yards with sufficient trees.

The blue jay is a common year-round resident in Florida.

Nest: Blue jays build a cup-shaped nest in a variety of conditions 10-25 feet above the ground.
Breeding season: Blue jays breed in late March through late August.
Breeding Period: Blue jays lay 2-7 bluish to brownish eggs with brown spots. It takes about 27 days from egg-laying (incubation period 18 days, nestling period: 20 days) until fledging.
Lifespan: Blue jays live at least 26 years and 11 months.


American Crow

Length 17.5″, Weight 1 lb

Identification: The American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) is all black. It is large and social moving about in flocks of various sizes. Juveniles have a dull black plumage without the glossy appearance of the adults.
Food: Attract American crows with oil sunflower seeds, hulled sunflower seeds, safflower, nyjer, cracked corn, peanut hearts, fruit, millet, oats, and milo.
Feeder: The American crow favors platform feeders and the Ground.
Frequency: American crows visit 40.7% of backyard bird feeders in the State of Florida in groups of 2.3 individuals.
Behavior: Aggressive and dominant over most other feeder birds. Takes over feeders when present.
Backyard: Favors open country, agricultural fields, and similar open habitats. Present in some urban areas but not in others.

The American crow is a year-round resident in Florida.

Nest: It builds a simple platform or accumulation of twigs in trees or tall shrubs 10 to 70 above the ground.
Breeding season: American crows breed in mid-March through late July.
Breeding Period: The American crow lays 3-9 greenish-olive eggs blotched with brown concentrated on the wide side of the egg. It takes about 47 days from egg-laying (incubation period 17 days, nestling period 30 days) until fledging.
Lifespan: American crows live at least 17 years and five months.


BLUEBIRDS & ROBINS

Bluebirds and Robins belong to the avian family Turdidae. In Florida, bird feeder visitors in this family include the eastern bluebird and the American robin.

Robins and bluebirds feed mostly on insects and small amounts of fruit during the breeding season. During the non-breeding season, their diet includes a greater proportion of fruit. They generally visit Florida bird feeders that offer mealworms and suet.


Eastern Bluebird

Length 7″, Weight 1.1 oz

Identification: Adult male eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) are deep blue above with a red-brick breast and belly. Females have a bluish-gray back, blue on the wings and tail, and rich brown breasts. Juveniles are a darker gray with white spotting in the breasts.
Food: Attract eastern bluebird with mealworms, suet, peanut hearts, and fruit.
Feeder: It favors platform feeders and the ground.
Frequency: The eastern bluebird is a rare visitor to backyard bird feeders in Florida.
Behavior: Non-aggressive and easy-going at feeders. Submissive to other even smaller birds.
Backyard: Favors open fields, open woodlands, and park-like habitats. Favor feeders in open spaces.

The eastern bluebird is a year-round resident in Florida.

Nest: It builds a cup-shaped nest within natural or woodpecker excavated cavities at any height from the ground. It readily takes nesting boxes.
Breeding season: The eastern bluebird breeds in mid-February through late September.
Breeding Period: Eastern bluebirds lay 2-7 pale blue or rarely white or pink eggs. It takes about 35 days from egg-laying (incubation period 16 days, nestling period 14 days) until fledging.
Lifespan: Eastern bluebirds live at least 10 years and 6 months.


American Robin

Length 10″, Weight 2.7 oz

Identification: The American robin (Turdus migratorius) is gray above with a blackish head and yellow-orange bill. Reddish-brown below. Colors are more saturated during the breeding season.
Food: Attract American robins with hulled sunflower seeds, suet, peanut hearts, fruit, and mealworms.
Feeder: It favors platform feeders and the ground.
Frequency: The American robin visits 33.8% of backyard bird feeders in the State of Florida in groups of 4.2 individuals.
Behavior: Non-aggressive at feeders. Usually feeds on the ground and jumps to platform feeders.
Backyard: Favors relatively open habitats and yards with feeders in open spaces.

The American robin is a winter visitor in most of the State of Florida. It breeds in extreme North Florida and the Panhandle areas.

Nest: It builds a well-shaped cup on forks or horizontal branches 5-25 feet above the ground. They can also nest on the ground, light fixtures, house ledges, and bridges.
Breeding season: American robins breed in April through mid-August.
Breeding Period: The American Robin lays 3-5 distinctively blue eggs with no markings. It takes about 26 days from egg-laying (incubation period 13 days, nestling period 14 days) until fledging.
Lifespan: American robins live at least 13 years and 11 months.


WOODPECKERS

The red-bellied woodpecker and downy woodpecker are regular visitors to backyard bird feeders in Florida.

Woodpeckers feed on insects, other arthropods, fruit, nectar, and seeds. The red-bellied often takes seeds from feeders to cash elsewhere for later consumption.


Red-bellied Woodpecker

Length 9.3″, Weight 2.2 oz

Identification: The red-bellied woodpecker (Melanerpes carolinus) has black-and-white barring on the back and wings, plain brownish breast and face, and red nape. Young birds lack the red on the nape. It shows a red wash on the belly.
Food: Attract red-bellied woodpecker with black oil sunflower seeds, hulled Sunflower seeds, safflower, suet, cracked corn, peanuts, peanut hearts, nectar, fruit, and mealworms.
Feeder: It favors suet cage, large hopper, platform, and nectar feeders.
Frequency: The red-bellied woodpecker visits 81% of backyard bird feeders in the State of Florida in groups of 1.2 individuals.
Behavior: It is among the most aggressive and dominant over most other birds at feeders. Submissive only to common grackles and crows.
Backyard: Favors relatively open yards but is not picky about yard conditions.

The red-bellied woodpecker is a common year-round resident bird in Florida.

Nest: It excavates its cavities in dead trees, uses pre-existing cavities, and also takes nesting boxes.
Breeding season: Red-bellied woodpeckers breed in mid-April through mid-September.
Breeding Period: The red-bellied woodpecker lays 2-6 white eggs. It takes about 32 days from egg-laying (incubation period 12 days, nestling period 25 days) until fledging.
Lifespan: Red-bellied woodpeckers live at least 12 years and 3 months.


Downy Woodpecker

Length 6.7″, Weight 0.95 oz

Identification: The downy woodpecker (Dryobates pubescens) is a tiny black and white woodpecker. Males have a red spot on the nape, which is missing in the female. Note the relatively short bill.
Food: Attract downy woodpeckers with suet, black oil sunflower seeds, hulled sunflower seeds, peanuts, peanut hearts, and mealworms.
Feeder: Downy woodpeckers favor suet cages, large hopper, small hopper, and platform feeders.
Frequency: The downy woodpecker visits 51.7% of backyard bird feeders in the State of Florida in groups of 1.2 individuals.
Behavior: Generally non-aggressive but dominant over smaller birds and submissive to larger ones.
Backyard: Downy woodpeckers favors semi-open woodlands and wooded urban areas. They are more likely to visit backyard feeders located in or near these habitat types.

The downy woodpecker is a year-round resident in Florida.

Nest: Downy woodpeckers nest in cavities they excavate in dead branches at variable heights from the ground.
Breeding season: Downy woodpeckers breed in early March through early July.
Breeding Period: Downy woodpeckers lay 3-8 white round eggs. It takes about 31 days from egg-laying (incubation period 12 days, nestling period 19 days) until fledging.
Lifespan: House finches live at least 11 years and 11 months.


TITMOUSE & CHICKADEE

In Central and South Florida, the tufted titmouse is relatively scarce, and the Carolina chickadees are absent from roughly the southern half of the State. They feed on insects, but when insects are scarce, they switch to seeds, buds, and fruit. As the cold winter months approach, the tufted titmouse and Carolina chickadee store food for later consumption. They are often observed taking food from feeders into the woods to consume or cash it in the bark of trees and holes for later consumption.


Tufted Titmouse

Length 6.5″, Weight 0.75 oz

Identification: The tufted titmouse (Baeolophus bicolor) is gray above with pale breast, belly, and orange-brown flanks. It has a conspicuous gray crest and black forehead.
Food: Attract tufted titmouse with black oil sunflower seeds, hulled sunflower seeds, safflower, nyjer, suet, peanuts, peanut hearts, and mealworms.
Feeder: It favors large and small tube feeders, suet cage, large hopper, small hopper, and platform feeders.
Frequency: The tufted titmouse visits 64.4% of backyard bird feeders in the State of Florida in groups of 1.6 individuals.
Behavior: Nonaggressive and submissive to most larger birds.
Backyard: The tufted titmouse is a bird of woodlands. It visits feeders in or near woodlands and rarely ventures away to bird feeders in open habitats.

The tufted titmouse is absent from South Florida and more frequent in the northern part of the State.

Nest: The tufted titmouse nests in natural tree cavities and cavities excavated by woodpeckers. They also use nest boxes.
Breeding season: Tufted titmice breed in early April through mid-July.
Breeding Period: The tufted titmouse lays 3-9 white to creamy white eggs spotted with rich reddish-brown. It takes about 29 days from egg-laying (incubation period 13 days, nestling period: 16 days) until fledging.
Lifespan: Tufted titmice live at least 12 years and five months.


Carolina Chickadee

Length 4.7″, Weight 0.4 oz

Identification: The Carolina chickadee (Poecile carolinensis) is bluish gray above and grayish-brown below with a pale center of the belly. It has a distinctive black cap and throat separated by broad white sides of the head.
Food: Attract Carolina chickadees with black oil sunflower seeds, hulled sunflower seeds, safflower, nyjer, suet, peanuts, peanut hearts, and mealworms.
Feeder: It favors Large and small tube feeders, suet cages, large hoppers, and platform feeders.
Frequency: The Carolina chickadee visit 49% of backyard bird feeders in the State of Florida in groups of 1.6 individuals.
Behavior: Non-aggressive at feeders. It usually takes one seed at a time and leaves to eat it or store it before it returns to the feeder. Submissive to most birds visiting feeders in Florida.
Backyard: Chickadees are birds of woodlands. Readily visit the feeder placed within its natural habitat.

The Carolina chickadee is a year-round resident in the northern half of Florida.

Nest: It nests in cavities pairs excavate in rotten soft wood. I also use existing cavities such as those excavated by woodpeckers.
Breeding season: Carolina chickadees breed in late March through mid-September.
Breeding Period: Carolina chickadees lay 3-10 white eggs with brown spots concentrated on the wide side of the egg. It takes about 27 days from egg-laying (incubation period 13 days, nestling period 14 days) until fledging.
Lifespan: The Carolina chickadee lives at least 10 years and 8 months.


WRENS

Wrens, in general, are not known as regular bird feeder visitors anywhere. However, the Carolina wren is a regular visitor to backyard feeders in Florida. 

Wrens feed on insects and other small invertebrates in dense foliage close to the ground. They also supplement their diet with some berries and seeds. 


Carolina Wren

Length 5.5″, Weight 0.74 oz

Identification: The Carolina wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus) is Reddish-brown on the back wings and tail, with dusky markings. It has buffy-brown underparts. Note the bold white eyebrow and slightly decurved bill. It is a great songster.
Food: Attract Carolina wrens with hulled sunflower seeds, suet, peanuts, and mealworms.
Feeder: It favors large tube feeder, small tube feeder, suet cage, large hopper, platform, and the ground.
Frequency: The Carolina wren visit 63% of backyard bird feeders in the State of Florida in groups of 1.3 individuals
Behavior: It is often shy at feeders and does not stay out of dense vegetation for long.  Submissive to most other birds.
Backyard: Carolina wrens favor dense vegetation, tangled understory, or brush piles that they use to approach bird feeders and return for cover.

The Carolina wren is a year-round resident in Florida.

Nest: The Carolina wren builds a bulky oven-shaped nest with a side entrance. The nest is placed in broken-off stumps and limbs 3-6 feet above the ground. It often nests in hanging planters and hanging decorations on porches.
Breeding season: Carolina wrens breed in late March through early October.
Breeding Period: Carolina wrens lay 3-7 creamy-white eggs with brown spots. It takes about 27 days from egg-laying (incubation period 13 days, nestling period 14 days) until fledging.
Lifespan: Carolina wrens live at least 7 years and 8 months.


WARBLERS

Warblers generally do not visit bird feeders. Most warblers in North America feed on insects and other small invertebrates, but some include fruit, nectar, and small seeds during the winter months or non-breeding season. The pine warbler is a year-round resident in Florida, while the yellow-rumped warbler is only a winter visitor at bird feeders. 


Pine Warbler

Length 5.5″, Weight 0.42 oz

Identification: The pine warbler (Setophaga pinus) has a yellow throat, yellow-olive belly, head, and back. The wings are gray with pale markings and two wing bars. Females and immatures are dull gray-brown. Note the two white wing bars in both sexes and ages.
Food: Attract pine warblers with hulled sunflower seeds, suet, peanuts hearts, and mealworms.
Feeder: It favors large and small tube feeders, suet cage, large and small hopper, and platform feeders.
Frequency: The pine warbler visits 40.79% of backyard bird feeders in the State of Florida in groups of 2.1 individuals.
Behavior: Nonaggressive at feeders. Submissive to other larger birds.
Backyard: Favors pine woodlands. It tends to visit birdfeeders located in or near pine woodlands.

The pine warbler is a year-round resident in Florida.

Nest: Pine warblers build an open cup, usually in pine trees or hardwoods 30 to 55 feet above the ground.
Breeding season: Pine warblers breed in late March through late July.
Breeding period: Pine warbler lay 3-5 grayish eggs with brown spots. It takes about 22 days from egg-laying (incubation period 12 days, nestling period 14 days) until fledging.
Lifespan: Pine warblers live at least 7 years and 10 months.


Yellow-rumped Warbler

Length 0.5″, Weight 0.43 oz

Identification: The yellow-rumped warbler (Setophaga coronata) in winter plumage is grayish-brown with blackish streaks. The throat is whitish. The rump and sides of the breast and belly are yellow. It has two distinctive white wing bars.
Food: Attract yellow-rumped warbler with hulled sunflower seeds, suet, peanuts, peanut hearts, nectar, fruit, and mealworms.
Feeder: It favors large and small tube feeders, suet cage, large and small hopper feeders, fruit, and nectar feeders.
Frequency: The yellow-rumped warbler visits backyards in Florida only in the winter months in groups of 2.9 individuals.
Behavior: A non-aggressive visitor to feeders. It is submissive to most other birds at feeders.
Backyard: Yellow-rumped warblers favor semi-open woodland and yards where it moves about in flocks.

The yellow-rumped warbler is a Fall and Winter visitor to Florida. Birds in the state are mostly in non-breeding plumages.

Nest: It builds an open cup on horizontal branches in coniferous forests 4-50 feet above the ground.
Breeding season: The yellow-rumped warbler breeds in mid-May through late August.
Breeding Period: Yellow-rumped warblers lay 1-6 whitish eggs speckled with reddish-brown. It takes about 25 days from egg-laying (incubation period 12 day, nestling period 12 days) until fledging.
Lifespan: Yellow-rumped warblers live at least 10 years.


HUMMINGBIRDS

The ruby-throated hummingbird is the only species of hummingbird expected in the eastern half of North America, including Florida. 

Ruby-throated hummingbirds occur year-round in roughly the northern half of Florida. The state’s southern half (mostly coastal areas) is visited by hummingbirds only during the winter months. Hummingbirds visit backyards that have nectar feeders. Hummingbirds feed on nectar from flowers and insects.


Ruby-throated Hummingbird

Length 3.7″, Weight 0.11 oz

Identification: The male ruby-throated hummingbird (Archilochus colubris) has a shiny green back and greenish belly. The throat is iridescent ruby-red and bordered by a broad pale breast band. Females have similar shiny green backs, but the throat, breast, and belly are whitish-brown.
Food: Attract ruby-throated hummingbirds with nectar offered in nectar feeders.
Feeder: It favors exclusively nectar feeder.
Frequency: The ruby-throated hummingbird visits 37.3% of backyard bird feeders in the State of Florida in groups of 1.2 individuals.
Behavior: Aggressive to other hummingbirds at feeders, particularly when there are many individuals visiting the feeder.
Backyard: Favors shrubbery and semi-open habitats with plenty of flowers.

The ruby-throated hummingbird is a breeding resident in most of Florida. It is a Fall and Winter visitor to the Southern third of Florida.

Nest: It builds a tiny cup-shaped nest on a thin branch 10 to 40 feet above the ground.
Breeding season: The ruby-throated hummingbird breeds in May through early October.
Breeding Period: The ruby-throated hummingbird lays 1-3 white eggs. It takes about 34 days from egg-laying (incubation period 13 days, nestling period 14 days) until fledging.
Lifespan: The ruby-throated hummingbird lives at least nine years and 2 months.

Photo Credits:

Photographic material used in this guide was made available on various websites. Many thanks to Andrew Morffew, Mark Mochell, Elizabeth Milson, Duzan Brinkhuizen, Matt Weller, Troy Anderson, Dennis Church, Wendy Miller, Rick From Alabama, Carlos Sanchez, John Benson, Mick Thompson, Steve Guttman, Victor Espinoza, Kelly Colgan-Azar, Andy Reago, Chrissy McLarren, Garry C., Michael Janke, Cuatro77, Linda Fortuna, Vicky DeLoach, Paul Hurtado, Tom Murray, Tom Wilberding, Patricia Pierce, Kenneth Cole-Schneider, Doug Greenberg, Brian Garrett, David White, Victoria Pickering, Becky Matsubara, Dan Mooney, and Julio Mulero.

Voices:

Most recordings were made by Paul Marvin (Xeno-canto https://xeno-canto.org/contributor/RFTXRYBVBX)

References and Sources:

  • eBird. (https://ebird.org/)
  • Project Feederwatch (https://feederwatch.org/)
  • Sibley, David, 2000, The Sibley Guide to Birds.
  • Species Longevity Data: United States Geological Survey (https://www.usgs.gov/)
  • Wikipedia. (https://www.wikipedia.org/)

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