Hummingbird Identification: An Illustrated Guide to all 14 North American Species

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This article (Guide) contains illustrations and information on all 14 species of hummingbirds in North America.

Scroll down or jump to a species account on the list ->. Then, use the blue “back to top” on the bottom right to review another account.

Identifying Hummingbirds

Hummingbirds are among the most beloved birds, but identifying them can be a challenge. They are tiny and restless. Their color pattern can be difficult to discern on a tiny body and may look different when seen from different angles. In low light, hummingbirds may look dark or black.

Table Of Contents

Things to Consider.

Bird identification requires paying attention to a bird’s size, shape, color patterns, behavior, geographic location, time of the year, and habitat.

When it comes to hummingbirds at feeders (where they are more likely to be seen), one should focus on a bird’s color patterns and the sighting’s location and time of the year.

Hummingbird Identification Tips.

Males

Pay attention to the crown and throat (gorget) shapes and color combined with the breast and belly’ color pattern.

  • What is the color of the throat?
  • Is the gorget of a solid color, streaked, or elongated?
  • Is the crown also of an iridescent color or plain?
  • What are the colors of the breast and belly?

Females

Female hummingbirds can be a challenge to identify. As a general rule, females are likely to be the same species as the males that accompany them at the feeders. Pay attention to the head markings and color patterns of the breast and belly.

  • Does it have a conspicuous supercilium?
  • Are the breast and belly whitish or buffy brown?
  • Does it have some iridescent feathers in the center of the throat?

Female hummingbirds have distinctive tail color patterns, but these are difficult to see. Also, bear in mind that some females are so similar among species that they cannot be safely identified.

Both males and females o all species have green or greenish upperparts.

Location and time of the Year.

Most North American hummingbirds are migratory and spend only a few months in specific regions of the country.

Consider the fact that Lucifer, Violet-crowned, Buff-bellied, Broad-billed, Rivoli’s Hummingbirds, and Blue-throated Mountain-Gem are found regularly in only a few locations near the U.S. Mexico border.

  • Based on the species range map, ask if the hummingbird you see is expected to occur in the region at the time of the year.

Lucifer Hummingbird

Scientific Name: Calothorax lucifer

hummingbird identification

Identification

Length: 3.7″ (2.6 cm) | Weight: 0.11oz (3.1 gr). Adult males have a magenta/purple gorget and a dark forked tail. Females have rufous on the base of the outer tail feathers, a buffy supercilium, and a breast band. Both sexes have a long curved bill. Juveniles resemble a female.

Migration

In its limited range in the U.S., spring migration starts in early March through early April. Fall migration begins from mid-August through late September.

Breeding

The nesting season lasts from early April through mid-August. The female builds a cup-shaped nest generally on plants of short stature. The nest is placed at about 0.8 – 1.5 m above the ground. She lays two unmarked white eggs.

Habitat

It favors mixed scrub with shrubs and cactus at elevations ranging between 3,500–5,500 feet.

How long do they live?

A Lucifer Hummingbird lifespan is at least 7 years based on a bird banded and recaptured in Texas.

How many are there?

According to Partners in Flight, the global population of the Lucifer Hummingbirds is approximately 200,000 individuals.

Range Map

lucifer hummingbird distribution map

Song

Fun Facts

Lucifer Hummingbird

  • Females Lucifer Hummingbird may rebuild a nest on top of a previously used nest.
  • Males do not have an elaborate display but hover over the female while she is on or building the nest.

Violet-crowned Hummingbird

Scientific Name: Amazilia violiceps

violet-crowned hummingbird

Identification

Length: 5.5” | Weight: 0.619 oz (5.5 gr). Adult birds have greenish-brown upperparts and tail. The crown is violet. The bill is bright red with a dusky tip. The underparts are pure white. Both sexes look alike.

Migration

In its small range in the U. S. not much is known about its migratory movements. Based on their presence in bird feeders in Arizona, birds begin to arrive by mid-February, but some individuals overwinter in the State.

Breeding

The nesting season starts approximately in mid-March through mid-September. The female builds a cup-shaped nest, generally in sycamore trees. The nest is placed at about 7 and 12 m above ground. She lays two unmarked white eggs.

Habitat

It favors dry mixed scrub with pine-oaks woods and riparian deciduous canyons at elevations ranging from 1,200 to 1,700 m.

How long do they live?

The lifespan of a Violet-crowned Hummingbird is at least 6 years.

How many are there?

According to Partners in Flight, the global population of the Violet-crowned Hummingbird is approximately 2 million individuals.

Range Map

violet-crowned hummingbird distribution map

Song

Fun Facts

Violet-crowned Hummingbird

  • It is the only North American hummingbird with pure white underparts.
  • It nests almost exclusively in the Arizona sycamore tree (Platanus wrightii).

Buff-bellied Hummingbird

Scientific Name: Amazilia yucatanensis

buff-bellied hummingbird identification

Identification

Length: 4.3” (2.6 cm) | Weight: 0.13 oz (3.8 gr). Bright green head, breast, and upper back. The belly is buffy. The bill is bright red with a dusky tip. Both sexes look alike, but males have a rufous tail and more saturated colors than females.

Migration

This hummingbird is mostly sedentary. After the breeding season, some individuals move to the southeastern states in the U.S. between October through February.

Breeding

The Buff-bellied Hummingbird breeds roughly from mid-March through mid-September. The female builds a cup-shaped nest at about 1-3 m above the ground. She lays two unmarked white eggs.

Habitat

The Buff-bellied Hummingbird is a habitat generalist regularly found in forest edges, parks, gardens, and scrubby woodlands at elevations below 1,200 m.

How long do they live?

A Buff-bellied Hummingbird lifespan is at least 11 years based on a bird banded and recaptured in Texas.

How many are there?

According to Partners in Flight, the global population of Buff-bellied Hummingbirds is approximately 2 million individuals.

Range Map

buff-bellied hummingbird range map

Song

Fun Facts

Buff-bellied Hummingbird

  • It is the least studied of all hummingbirds in North America.
  • Unlike most migratory birds, some birds move to the Northeastern U.S. during the wintertime or non-breeding season.

Broad-billed Hummingbird

Scientific Name: Cynanthus latirostris

broad-billed hummingbird

Identification

Length: 4” | Weight: 0.1 oz (1.9 gr). The male is mostly bright green with blue on the throat and breast. The tail is dark and notched. The bill is coral-red with a dusky tip. The female has dingy gray underparts and a white supercilium.

Migration

In SE Arizona, the spring migration occurs throughout March. The Fall migration starts in mid-September through mid-October.

Breeding

Birds in the U.S. appear to nest from early May through September.
The female builds a cup-shaped at about 3-10 feet above the ground. She lays two to three unmarked white eggs.

Habitat

In its limited range in the U.S., the Broad-billed Hummingbird favors riparian habitats along streams and canyons generally below 6,500 feet of elevation.

How long do they live?

A Broad-billed Hummingbird lifespan is at least 9 years based on a banded and recaptured bird in Arizona.

How many are there?

According to Partners in Flight, the estimated global breeding population of the Broad-billed Hummingbird is 2.2 million individuals.

Range Map

broad-billed hummingbird range map

Song

Fun Facts

Broad-billed Hummingbird

  • The courtship display of a male Broad-billed Hummingbird consists of the male hovering in a pendulum motion over the female.

Blue-throated Mountain-Gem

Scientific Name: Lampornis clemenciae

blue-throated mountain-gem identification

Identification

Length: 5” | Weight: 0.3 oz (7.6 gr). The male has a sapphire-blue gorget. Both sexes have gray underparts, a white-tipped dark tail, and double white line-marking that encloses the eye.

Migration

In its limited range in the U.S., birds begin to arrive in mid-March. By late October, most birds have left the U.S., but some overwinter typically near feeding stations.

Breeding

In Arizona, the Blue-throated Mountain-Gem starts breeding in early-April through mid-August. Females can attempt multiple broods in one season.

Habitat

In the U.S., the Blue-throated Mountain-Gem favors mixed woodlands and coniferous forests in the mountains. It regularly occurs at elevations ranging between 4,500 and 11,500. It is rare at lower elevations.

How long do they live?

A Blue-throated Mountain-Gem lifespan is 7 years and 11 months based on a bird banded and recaptured in Arizona.

How many are there?

According to Partners in Flight, the estimated global breeding population of the Blue-throated Mountain-Gem is 2 million individuals.

Range Map

blue-throated mountain-gem range map

Song

Fun Facts

Blue-throated Mountain-Gem

  • The Blue-throated Mountain-Gem is the largest North American Hummingbird. It is three times the size of a Ruby-throated Hummingbird.
  • It was formerly known as Blue-throated Hummingbird until mid-2019.

Rivoli’s Hummingbird

Scientific Name: Eugenes fulgens

rivoli's hummingbird identification

Identification

Length: 5.25” | Weight: 0.25 oz (7 gr). The male has an iridescent green gorget, sapphire-blue cap, black breast, and tail. The female has the throat, breast and belly spotted or scaled with greenish. Her tail is green and black with large white tips. It is the second-largest North American Hummingbird.

Migration

Spring migration occurs from mid-February through mid-April. The Fall migration is from early October through late November but, rarely, some individuals stay year-round.

Breeding

In the U.S., the Rivoli’s Hummingbird breeds from mid-May through mid-September. The female builds a cup-shaped nest, usually within 15 m above the ground, on average. She lays two unmarked white eggs.

Habitat

The Rivoli’s Hummingbird favors the interior of pine-oak forests, humid montane or cloud forest, and forest edges at elevations ranging from 1,500 to at least 2,740 m.

How long do they live?

A Rivoli’s Hummingbird lifespan is 11 years, 2 months based on a bird banded and recaptured in Arizona.

How many are there?

According to Partners in Flight, the estimated global breeding population of the Rivoli’s Hummingbird is 2 million individuals.

Range Map

rivoli's hummingbird range map

Song

Fun Facts

Rivoli’s Hummingbird

  • In 2017, ornithologists split the Magnificent Hummingbird into two species. The species in Mexico and the U.S. maintained the name Rivoli’s Hummingbird.
  • This hummingbird was named in honor of the French second Duke of Rivoli, an amateur ornithologist.

Anna’s Hummingbird

Scientific Name: Calypte anna

Identification

Length: 4” | Weight: 0.15 oz (4.3 gr). The male has an iridescent red crown and throat and pale eyering. The underparts are greenish. The female has a white line over the eye and greenish underparts. She has a red central patch on the throat. Her tail has a black band tipped with white.

Migration

Anna’s Hummingbird is a resident and sedentary species. After breeding, they move up and down the mountains, apparently in response to changes in temperature and availability of flowers.

Breeding

There is some variation in nesting timing between birds in California and those in the northern part of its range. Overall, Anna’s Hummingbirds begin breeding from mid-January through early May. The female builds a cup-shaped nest placed at about 2–6 m above the ground. She lays two unmarked white eggs.

Habitat

Anna’s Hummingbirds favor open woodland, oak savannas, chaparral, coastal scrub. They are common in suburban settings and other human-created habitats.

How long do they live?

An Anna’s Hummingbird lifespan is at least 8 years and 2 months based on a bird banded and recaptured in Arizona.

How many are there?

According to Partners in Flight, the estimated global breeding population of Anna’s Hummingbird is 5 million individuals.

Range Map

anna's hummingbird range map

Song

Fun Facts

Anna’s Hummingbird

  • Anna’s Hummingbirds have expanded their range due to flowering plants now available in urban areas, as well as hummingbird feeders.
  • Native American legends describe Anna’s hummingbirds poking holes in the night sky that became the stars.

Costa’s Hummingbird

Scientific Name: Calypte costae

costa's hummingbird identification

Identification

Length: 3.5” | Weight: 0.1 oz (3.1 gr). The male Costa’s Hummingbird has an iridescent purple crown, a white eyebrow, and a purple elongated gorget. The female has a conspicuous white supercilium and whitish underparts. She has a broad black band on the tail tipped with large white spots.

Migration

The migration patterns of the Costa’s Hummingbird are variable and poorly understood. Spring migration occurs approximately from early January through mid-March. Fall migration appears to occur between mid-April and mid-June.

Breeding

The initiation of nesting varies with habitat type and location. From California to Arizona, birds begin nesting in February through May. The female builds a cup-shaped nest on a horizontal branch at about 1–2 m above the ground, where she lays two unmarked white eggs.

Habitat

The Costa’s Hummingbird favors desert scrub, coastal California chaparral, deciduous forest, and sage scrub within its range.

How long do they live?

A Costa’s Hummingbird lifespan is at least 8 years 9 months based on a bird banded and recaptured in California.

How many are there?

According to Partners in Flight, the estimated global breeding population of Costa’s Hummingbird is 3.4 million individuals.

Range Map

costa's hummingbird range map

Song

Fun Facts

Costa’s Hummingbird

  • Studies on Costa’s Hummingbird’s foraging activity found that birds need to visit 1,840 flowers per day to maintain the bird’s energy requirements.
  • Costa’s hummingbirds can stray out of their range. Some birds have shown up as far north as British Columbia and Alaska.

Black-chinned Hummingbird

Scientific Name: Archilochus alexandri

black-chinned hummingbird identification

Identification

Length: 3.7″ | Weight: 1.6 oz (2.7 gr). The male has a black chin bordered below by an iridescent purple band. It has a dark tail. The female has a speckled throat. She has a broad black band on the tail tipped with large white spots.

Migration

Dates of arrival and departure vary by region. Overall, the Spring migration occurs between mid-March through mid-May. Fall migration occurs between early August through late September.

Breeding

Birds in the U.S. have a variable timing of nesting, but, overall, the nesting season occurs between mid-May through early August. The female builds a cup-shaped nest at about 6-12 feet above the ground. She lays two unmarked white eggs.

Habitat

It is a habitat generalist that uses dry scrub, woodlands, urban, and other human-created habitats.

How long do they live?

A Black-chinned Hummingbird lifespan is at least 11 years and 2 months based on a bird banded and recaptured in Texas.

How many are there?

According to Partners in Flight, the estimated global breeding population of the Black-chinned Hummingbird is 5 million individuals.

Range Map

black-chinned hummingbird range map

Song

Fun Facts

Black-chinned Hummingbird

  • Birds during migration make brief stopovers and appear to fly directly to their breeding grounds.
  • Females are slightly larger than males.

Ruby-throated Hummingbird

Scientific Name: Archilochus colubris

ruby-throated hummingbird identification

Identification

Length: 3.7″ | Weight: 0.11oz (3.2 gr). The male Ruby-throated Hummingbird has an iridescent-red gorget bordered below by a pale crescent. It has a dark tail and a greenish belly. The female has a speckled throat and dull-greenish underparts. She has a broad black band on the tail, which is tipped with large white spots.

Migration

The Ruby-throated Hummingbird breeds mostly on the eastern half of the U.S. Birds from Mexico arrive in the Southern states in late February and return south in late October. A few individuals overwinter in some southeastern states.

Breeding

Birds arrive first in the southern states and later in the northern states. Hence, the breeding season starts and ends on different dates. Overall, breeding begins in May and ends in September. The female builds a cup-shaped nest at about 10-40 feet above the ground. She lays two unmarked white eggs.

Habitat

Ruby-throated Hummingbirds can use a variety of habitats. They favor primarily deciduous woodlands but are also found in old fields, forest edges, meadows, orchards, and backyards.

How long do they live?

A Ruby-throated Hummingbird lifespan is at least 9 years and 1 month based on a bird banded and recaptured in West Virginia.

How many are there?

According to Partners in Flight, the estimated global breeding population of the Ruby-throated Hummingbird is 20 million individuals.

Range Map

ruby-throated hummingbird range map

Song

Fun Facts

Ruby-throated Hummingbird

  • Ruby-throated Hummingbirds show preference over red or orange flowers.
  • Ruby-throated Hummingbirds often nest in strange places such as electric wires, power cables, metal bars in barns, and extension cords.

Related: When to Expect Hummingbirds in Eastern North America?

Calliope Hummingbird

Scientific Name: Selasphorus calliope

calliope hummingbird identification

Identification

Length: 3.25” | Weight: 0.1oz (2.7 gr). The male Calliope Hummingbird has a streaked iridescent rosy gorget. It has a white line from the base of the bill to the neck. It has a dark tail. The female has a speckled throat and pale buffy underparts. She has a broad black band on the tail, which is tipped with large white spots.

Migration

The entire population overwinters in Mexico. In the Spring, birds begin to arrive in the U.S. in early March and continue through May. In the Fall, birds return to Mexico starting in mid-June through late September.

Breeding

Birds in the U.S. begin to nest in late-April through mid-August. The female builds a cup-shaped nest at about 6–39 feet above the ground. She lays two unmarked white eggs.

Habitat

In the U.S., the Calliope Hummingbird is a montane species breeding at elevations ranging between 1,200 to 3,400. It favors forest edges and secondary succession dominated by low shrubs and scrub vegetation.

How long do they live?

A Calliope Hummingbird lifespan is at least 8 years and 1 month based on a bird banded and recaptured in Idaho.

How many are there?

According to Partners in Flight, the estimated global breeding population of the Calliope Hummingbird is 4.5 million individuals.

Range Map

Song

Fun Facts

Calliope Hummingbird

  • Calliope Hummingbirds are very territorial and will mob and chase away any bird, including crows and hawks.
  • For such a small bird, the Calliope Hummingbird makes a fantastic 5,000 miles trip to the wintering grounds and back to the breeding grounds.

Video: Calliope Hummingbird

Broad-tailed Hummingbird

Scientific Name: Selasphorus platycercus

broad-tailed hummingbird identification

Identification

Length: 4”| Weight: 0.13 oz (3.6 gr). The male Broad-tailed Hummingbird has an iridescent rosy-red gorget. It has a pale eye-ring and dark tail. The female has a speckled throat and pale buffy flanks. The base of the outer tail feathers is rufous.

Migration

The entire population overwinters in Mexico. In the Spring, birds begin to arrive in the U.S. by early March and continue through late May. The Fall migration back to Mexico begins in early-August through late September.

Breeding

Birds in the U.S. nest from late-May through mid-August.
The female builds a cup-shaped nest on trees or bushes of short stature, at about 1–5 feet above the ground. She lays two unmarked white eggs.

Habitat

In the U.S., the Broad-tailed Hummingbird favors pinyon-juniper, pine-oak, open woodlands, montane scrub, and meadows at elevations ranging from 5,000 to 10,500 feet.

How long do they live?

A Broad-tailed Hummingbird lifespan is at least 12 years and 2 months based on a bird banded and recaptured in Colorado.

How many are there?

According to Partners in Flight, the estimated global breeding population of the Broad-tailed Hummingbird is 10 million individuals.

Range Map

broad-tailed hummingbird range map

Song

Fun Facts

Broad-tailed Hummingbird

  • Broad-tailed Hummingbirds spend a lot of time and energy chasing away other hummingbirds and even large birds away from their feeding territory.
  • During courtship display, males make a loud sound with the tip of their wings. By the end of the mating season, the sound loses quality as the feathers that produce it wears down from extreme use.

Allen’s Hummingbird

Scientific Name: Selasphorus sasin

allen's hummingbird identification

Identification

Length: 3.7″ | Weight: 0.11oz (3.1 gr). The male Allen’s Hummingbird has an iridescent copper-red gorget and white breast. It is mostly rufous except for the upper back and cap. His tail feathers are rufous, pointy, and have black tips. The female is a greener version of the male with a speckled throat. The base of the outer tail feathers is rufous. She has a broad black band on the tail tipped with white.

Migration

The Allen’s Hummingbird spends a relatively short time in the U.S. Birds begin to show up in the breeding grounds by mid-May and return to the wintering ground by early September.

Breeding

Birds in the U.S. start nesting in mid to late-February through late-January. The female builds a cup-shaped nest at about 2–50 feet above the ground. She lays two unmarked white eggs.

Habitat

In the U.S., the Allen’s Hummingbird favors coastal forest, chaparral habitat, and scrub at an elevation ranging from sea level to about 1,000 feet. Males prefer more exposed habitats such as coastal scrub. Females favor habitat with more vegetation cover.

How long do they live?

An Allen’s Hummingbird lifespan is 5 years 11 months based on a bird banded and recaptured in California.

How many are there?

According to Partners in Flight, the estimated global breeding population of Allen’s Hummingbird is 1.7 million individuals.

Range Map

allen's hummingbird range map

Song

Fun Facts

Lucifer Hummingbird

  • During the breeding season, males and females meet only to mate. Each sex occupies separate habitat types.
  • Allen’s Hummingbirds use their feet to regulate their body temperature. They expose their feet in warm climates, but they tuck them in low temperatures in their plumage.

Rufous Hummingbird

Scientific Name: Selasphorus rufus

rufous hummingbird identification

Identification

Length: 4”| Weight: 0.13 oz (3.6 gr). The male Rufous Hummingbird has an iridescent copper-red gorget and white breast. It is mostly rufous. His tail feathers are rufous, pointy, and have black tips. The female is a greener version of the male with a speckled throat. The base of the outer tail feathers is rufous. She has a broad black band on the tail tipped with white. Both sexes are very similar to Allen’s Hummingbird.

Migration

Birds begin to arrive in the Spring by early March and continue through late May. The Fall migration back to Mexico starts in early July through late September.

Breeding

Birds in the U.S. breed from mid-April through mid-July. The female builds a cup-shaped nest at about 10-30 feet above the ground. She lays two unmarked white eggs.

Habitat

Rufous Hummingbirds favor a variety of habitats during the breeding season. They prefer forest openings, meadows, shrubby areas, and urban areas. They also use thickets, swamps, and to a lesser extend, forests.

How long do they live?

A Rufous Hummingbird lifespan is at least 8 years and 11 months based on a bird banded and recaptured in British Columbia, Canada.

How many are there?

According to Partners in Flight, the Rufous Hummingbird’s estimated global breeding population is 11 million individuals.

Range Map

Song

Fun Facts

Rufous Hummingbird

  • Nesting females are very territorial and aggressive towards potential nest predators. They chase away squirrels and chipmunks when they get too close to the nest.
  • The tiny Rufous Hummingbird flies about 7,800 miles each year from their wintering grounds in Mexico to as far north as Alaska.

Video: Broad-tailed and Rufous Hummingbirds

Credits

Photos and Sound Recordings

Photos: from the “Creative Commons” at Flickr.com.
The recordist of all cuts used here was Paul Paul Marvin, stored on Xeno-Canto.

Allen’s Hummingbird
Adult Male: m.shattock, Adult Female: Len Blumin, Recording: Paul Marvin (Xeno-Canto).

Anna’s Hummingbird
Male: blueviking63, JohnK, Andrew Reding. Female: Mick Thompson, Tyler Ingram. Recording: Paul Marvin (Xeno-canto).

Black-chinned Hummingbird
Male: Chuck Roberts, Erik Breden. Female: Chuck Roberts, ctempleart. Recording: Paul Marvin (Xenocanto).

Blue-throated Mountain-Gem
Male: PhotoKent, Brian Wulker. Female: Scott Berlung, Eric Vanderwerf. Recording: Paul Marvin (Xeno-Canto).

Broad-tailed Hummingbird
Male: Kent Miller, Oliver Patrick. Female: Chuck Roberts, Marcel Holyoak. Recording: Paul Marvin (Xeno-Canto).

Broad-billed Hummingbird
Male: Mick Thompson, Coyotay Moon’s. Female: Alan Schmierer, Mick Thompson. Recording: Paul Marvin (Xeno-Canto).

Buff-bellied Hummingbird
Male: Russ Wigh, Jorge Montejo. Recording: Paul Marvin (Xeno-Canto).

Calliope Hummingbird
Male: Tom Benson, Bryant Olsen. Female: Chuck Roberts, Bryant Olsen. Recording: Paul Marvin (Xeno-Canto).

Costa’s Hummingbird
Male: Eric Ellingson, Robert Shea. Female: Robert Shea, Mick Thompson. Recording: Paul Marvin (Xeno-Canto).

Lucifer Hummingbird
Male: Doug Greenberg, Jim Gain. Female: Tom Benson, Tony Morris. Recording: Paul Marvin (Xeno-Canto).

Rivoli’s Hummingbird
Male: Mick Thompson, Sam May. Female: Betina Arrigoni. Recording: Paul Marvin (Xeno-Canto).

Ruby-throated Hummingbird
Male: Tom Benson. Female: Hoan Luong. Recording: Paul Marvin (Xeno-Canto).

Rufous-hummingbird
Male: Bryn Calk, Mick Thompson. Female: Cletus Lee, Mick Thompson. Recording: Paul Marvin (Xeno-Canto).

Violet-crowned Hummingbird
Male & Femle: Alan Schmierer, Bettina Arrigoni, Mick Thomson. Recording: Paul Marvin (Xeno-Canto).

References:

  • Hummingbirds, Life History. All About Birds. The Cornell Lab of Ornithology.
  • Gill, Frank (1995). Ornithology. New York: W.H. Freeman.
  • The Sibley Guide to Birds. David Allen Sibley, Published by Alfred A. Knopf, 2000.
  • The Birds of the World Online.  Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, New York.

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